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Jacques Lipchitz

Jacques Lipchitz was a sculptor who was very into cubism. He did so with the sacrificed of his of his skills as an academician. This was a big change for Lipchitz, because at this time, cubism was not main stream, it was more of something to do on the side. He began producing purely Cubist sculptures around 1915; Head is a typical Lipchitz sculpture from this era. He used many different materials to produce his sculptures, such as clay, plaster, and some work in stone. Not until the 1960s did Lipchitz cast many of these works in bronze.
In 1916 Lipchitz changed his style, with the support of a dealer known as Leonce Rosenberg, allowed him to have assistants and try more ambitious projects. He changed his angular style into a more complex style, so his works did not become too abstract, but he always stayed in control of his medium. In 1920 Lipchitz had his first important one-man show at the Leonce Rosenberg Gallery in Paris. A collector by the name of Dr. Albert Barnes commissioned Lipchitz to do the exterior of the Barnes Foundation a couple of years later in Merion Pennsylvania.
In 1924 he began creating transparent sculptures, using the lost-wax technique that resembled drawings in bronze. During these times, he like most artists ran into that some form of artist block, and struggled a bit. Although his mind was a bit preoccupied in the late 1930s, he still managed to turn out such works as The Rape of Europa( which looks like a bull fighting with something that is somewhat unrecognizable, it is sculpted beautifully, but the name of it leaves little to be desired), Bull and Candor( this sculpture is a nice piece of work, done very well), and Prometheus, is Greek for Titan or son of a Titan and if I know my comics, it has something to do with Zeus mythology( This sculpture is large or Titan-like, it is wonderfully done with smooth edges and great contours. It looks like a man who is somewhat God like in stature, but a little whimsical with what seem like a smile).
In 1941, Lipchitz came to the United States and later became a citizen in 1957, but spent a lot of his last years in Italy. Returning briefly to France after World War II, he was commissioned in 1946 to design a front for the new church of Assy, Haute-Savoie. In 1952, the models for the church, along with several other pieces of his works were destroyed in his New York studio by a fire. The following year he resumed work on the Assy Madonna and on another sculpture, The Spirit of Enterprise, for Fairmount Park, Philadelphia.
His works in America took on a different style then his earlier works. A younger Lipchitz created a lot of his works in abstract, but later, thanks to taking a chance with cubism, he pieces of art that was emotionly charged and some were even monumental, but the most ambitious sculpture he created had to be Peace on Earth which was sculpted in 1967 and finished in 1970, for the Los Angeles Music Center.
Jacques Lipchitz had some pretty famous artist that influenced him. Lipchitz opens his own studio in 1912 in the Montparnasse, which was a district of Paris. It happened to be alongside that of Constantin Brancusi, who helped expose him to many avant-garde artists, including Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani, Diego Rivera, and Max Jacob. His greatest influence had to be Picasso, who is noted to be the father of cubism. Picasso showed him the way of three-dimensional shapes and other refinements that allowed Lipchitz to further his efforts into cubism. He created his work from his imagination and because of such endeavors, he sculpted the Horsewoman with the Fan in 1913 (This sculpture is very beautifully done, it has smooth contours, very soft lines, it is posed in a sexy, very feminine but without a woman’s face. One of his best pieces yet), The Matador done in 1914, and Sailor with Guitar done 1914 also (This piece is very representative of cubism, it is very blocky, with some very jagged edges, as well as smooth edges to help it round itself out. This sculpture is very human in shape, you can make out the face, ears, hands, feet, etc. Not his best piece in my opinion, but very well done).
Jacques Lipchitz was born in Druskienski, Lithuania on August Twenty-Second, 1891. His family came from a rich banking back round. At a young age Lipchitz learned how to draw and was encouraged to do so by his Father. After completing high School, Lipchitz Father, a building contractor by trade, wanted Jacques to go to engineering school; Jacques refuse to do so and left to Paris in 1909 to study sculpture at two Academies( Julian and Collarossi), in defiance of his father. As a student he won prizes for drafting and sculpture. He studied a lot of art history, but his favorites were Greek, Egyptian, and Gothic. You can tell that these cultures really played a meaningful part in shaping his sculptures and making them into what we see today.
From 1962 Lipchitz received numerous important public commissions both in the United States and Israel. He was honored with a lot of awards which lead to a lot of exhibitions, which lead to retrospectives in New York and Minneapolis in 1954. Lipchitz was a sculpture that started out drawing, because of his father wanted him to be an engineer, but Lipchitz had other hopes and dreams. He started off in abstract sculpture and made a good living off it, but thanks to Brancusi, who introduced him to Picasso and cubism, he rejected his former style and took a chance on cubism. With that he found him niche, he found major success in cubism and a fan base who commissioned his work across the globe. Jacques Lipchitz died on Capri on May 16, 1973. He was buried in Jerusalem. Lipchitz may be gone, but his sculptures will live on as long as there are people who love art, in any form.
Bibliography
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz: Book by Henry R. Hope; Museum of Modern Art, 1954
The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz: Book by Henry R. Hope; Museum of Modern Art, 1954
The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz: Book by Henry R. Hope; Museum of Modern Art, 1954
The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz: Book by Henry R. Hope; Museum of Modern Art, 1954
http://www.answers.com/topic/jacques-lipchit
http://www.answers.com/topic/jacques-lipchit
http://www.answers.com/topic/jacques-lipchit
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2008

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